keskiviikko 25. helmikuuta 2015

TIEDE TODISTAA: KANNABIS ON VAARALLINEN HUUME





Kaikki mikä ei tapa, ei vahvista, vaikka Nietzsche toisin väitti. Aine voi olla erittäin vaarallinen vaikka sen välitön tappava vaikutus olisi vähäinen tai olematon.


Urbaanilegendoista leukailevan "libbistoimittajan"  olisi syytä lukea esimerkiksi seuraavaa tutkimustulosta:


Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study


"The Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study (a study of a general population birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-3)4 has a 96% follow up rate at age 26. It obtained information on psychotic symptoms at age 11 and drug use at ages 15 and 18 from self reports and assessed psychiatric symptoms at age 26 with a standardised interview schedule to obtain DSM-IV (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition) diagnoses. We analysed data from a representative group of 759 (74%) living study members who had complete data on adult psychiatric outcomes, adolescent use of illicit substances, and childhood psychotic symptoms.




We divided the sample into three groups based on cannabis use at ages 15 and 18. The 494 controls (65.1% of the sample) had reported using cannabis “never” or “once or twice” at both ages; cannabis users by age 18 (236; 31.1%) first reported using cannabis “three times or more” at age 18; and cannabis users by age 15 (29; 3.8%) had reported using cannabis “three times or more” at age 15 (all of whom continued to use cannabis at age 18).




Psychiatric outcomes at age 26 were symptoms of schizophrenia and depression and diagnoses of schizophreniform disorder and depression.




Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cannabis users by age 15 and by age 18 had more schizophrenia symptoms than controls at age 26 (table). These results remained significant after psychotic symptoms at age 11 were controlled for. The effect was stronger with earlier use.




Logistic regression analyses showed that people who used cannabis by age 15 were four times as likely to have a diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder at age 26 than controls. After psychotic symptoms at age 11 were controlled for, the risk for adult schizophreniform disorder remained higher among those who used cannabis at age 15; however, this risk was reduced by 31% and was no longer significant.




Cannabis use by age 15 did not predict depressive outcomes at age 26. Use of other drugs in adolescence did not predict schizophrenia outcomes over and above the effect of cannabis use."




"Using cannabis in adolescence increases the likelihood of experiencing symptoms of schizophrenia in adulthood. Our findings agree with those of the Swedish study1 and add three new pieces of evidence. Firstly, cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of experiencing schizophrenia symptoms, even after psychotic symptoms preceding the onset of cannabis use are controlled for, indicating that cannabis use is not secondary to a pre-existing psychosis. Secondly, early cannabis use  (by age 15) confers greater risk for schizophrenia outcomes than later cannabis use (by age 18). The youngest cannabis users may be most at risk because their cannabis use becomes longstanding.5 Thirdly, risk was specific to cannabis use, as opposed to use of other drugs, and early cannabis use did not predict later depression. Our findings now require replication in large population studies with detailed measures of cannabis use and schizophrenia.




Although most young people use cannabis in adolescence without harm, a vulnerable minority experience harmful outcomes. A tenth of the cannabis users by age 15 in our sample (3/29) developed  schizophreniform disorder by age 26 compared with 3% of the remaining cohort (22/730). Our findings suggest that cannabis use among psychologically vulnerable adolescents should be strongly discouraged by parents, teachers, and health practitioners. Policy makers and law makers should concentrate on delaying onset of cannabis use."








Kannabis on kiistattomien tutkimusten mukaan erittäin vahingollista kehittyville nuorille:


”Kannabis-huumeen käytöllä on pitkäaikaisia psykologisia vaikutuksia. British Medical Journal -lehdessä julkaistu tutkimus kertoo, että kannabiksen jatkuva käyttö nuorena lisää riskiä saada psykoosi tai siihen liittyviä oireita tulevaisuudessa. Psykoosi tarkoittaa todellisuudentajun vakavaa häiriintymistä, joka voi näkyä esimerkiksi aistiharhoina. Vaikein psykoosisairaus on skitsofrenia."

(IL)


Linkki


Kannabis on nykyään vielä  voimakasta verrattuna 1970-luvun aineisiin.  Kannabisnuorista osa tulee sairastumaan psyykkisesti pitkäksi aikaa, kenties eliniäkseen ja osa kokee vähintään yhden kannabispsykoosin, josta on mahdollista toipua ennalleen. Nuorena aloittaneen ja pitkään käyttäneen henkilön älykkyyden laskua ei voi sen sijaan estää eikä myöhemmin kumota. Toisaalta kuka tahansa, siis myös vanhempi henkilö, voi saada ainakin kannabispsykoosin käytettyään tarpeeksi pilveä. Psykoosi ei tarkoita mitä tahansa ahdistusta vaan täydellistä mielen kaaosta. Se on äärimmäisen vaikea kokemus ihmiselle ja myös vaarallinen.









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